Network Working Group R. Rivest
Request for Comments: 1186B MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
Updates: RFC 1186 S. Dusse
RSA Data Security, Inc.
9 January 1991
The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm
STATUS OF THIS MEMO
This RFC is the specification of the MD4 Digest Algorithm. If you
are going to implement MD4, it is suggested you do it this way. This
memo is for informational use and does not constitute a standard.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary 1
2. Terminology and Notation 2
3. MD4 Algorithm Description 2
4. Extensions 6
5. Summary 6
6. Acknowledgements 7
Security Considerations 7
References 7
APPENDIX - Reference Implementation 7
1. Executive Summary
This note describes the MD4 message digest algorithm. The algorithm
takes as input an input message of arbitrary length and produces as
output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It
is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce two
messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message
having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD4 algorithm
is thus ideal for digital signature applications, where a large file
must be "compressed" in a secure manner before being signed with the
RSA public-key cryptosystem.
The MD4 algorithm is designed to be quite fast on 32-bit machines.
In addition, the MD4 algorithm does not require any large
substitution tables; the algorithm can be coded quite compactly.
The MD4 algorithm is being placed in the public domain for review and
possible adoption as a standard.
This RFC is a revision of the October 1990 RFC 1186. The main
difference is that the reference implementation of MD4 in the
appendix is more portable.
2. Terminology and Notation
In this note a "word" is a 32-bit quantity and a byte is an 8-bit
quantity. A sequence of bits can be interpreted in a natural manner
as a sequence of bytes, where each consecutive group of 8 bits is
interpreted as a byte with the high-order (most significant) bit of
each byte listed first. Similarly, a sequence of bytes can be
interpreted as a sequence of 32-bit words, where each consecutive
group of 4 bytes is interpreted as a word with the low-order (least
significant) byte given first.
Let x_i denote "x sub i". If the subscript is an expression, we
surround it in braces, as in x_{i+1}. Similarly, we use ^ for
superscripts (exponentiation), so that x^i denotes x to the i-th
power.
Let the symbol "+" denote addition of words (i.e., modulo- 2^32
addition). Let X <<< s denote the 32-bit value obtained by
circularly shifting (rotating) X left by s bit positions. Let not(X)
denote the bit-wise complement of X, and let X v Y denote the bit-
wise OR of X and Y. Let X xor Y denote the bit-wise XOR of X and Y,
and let XY denote the bit-wise AND of X and Y.
3. MD4 Algorithm Description
We begin by supposing that we have a b-bit message as input, and that
we wish to find its message digest. Here b is an arbitrary
nonnegative integer; b may be zero, it need not be a multiple of 8,
and it may be arbitrarily large. We imagine the bits of the message
written down as follows:
m_0 m_1 ... m_{b-1} .
The following five steps are performed to compute the message digest
of the message.
3.1 Step 1. Append padding bits
The message is "padded" (extended) so that its length (in bits) is
congruent to 448, modulo 512. That is, the message is extended so
that it is just 64 bits shy of being a multiple of 512 bits long.
Padding is always performed, even if the length of the message is
already congruent to 448, modulo 512 (in which case 512 bits of
padding are added).
Padding is performed as follows: a single "1" bit is appended to the
message, and then enough zero bits are appended so that the length in
bits of the padded message becomes congruent to 448, modulo 512.
3.2 Step 2. Append length
A 64-bit representation of b (the length of the message before the
padding bits were added) is appended to the result of the previous
step. In the unlikely event that b is greater than 2^64, then only
the low-order 64 bits of b are used. (These bits are appended as two
32-bit words and appended low-order word first in accordance with the
previous conventions.)
At this point the resulting message (after padding with bits and with
b) has a length that is an exact multiple of 512 bits. Equivalently,
this message has a length that is an exact multiple of 16 (32-bit)
words. Let M[0 ... N-1] denote the words of the resulting message,
where N is a multiple of 16.
3.3 Step 3. Initialize MD buffer
A 4-word buffer (A,B,C,D) is used to compute the message digest.
Here each of A,B,C,D are 32-bit registers. These registers are
initialized to the following values in hexadecimal, low-order bytes
first):
word A: 01 23 45 67
word B: 89 ab cd ef
word C: fe dc ba 98
word D: 76 54 32 10
3.4 Step 4. Process message in 16-word blocks
We first define three auxiliary functions that each take as input
three 32-bit words and produce as output one 32-bit word.
f(X,Y,Z) = XY v not(X)Z
g(X,Y,Z) = XY v XZ v YZ
h(X,Y,Z) = X xor Y xor Z
In each bit position f acts as a conditional: if x then y else z.
(The function f could have been defined using + instead of v since XY
and not(X)Z will never have 1's in the same bit position.) In each
bit position g acts as a majority function: if at least two of x, y,
z are on, then g has a one in that bit position, else g has a zero.
It is interesting to note that if the bits of X, Y, and Z are
independent and unbiased, the each bit of f(X,Y,Z) will be
independent and unbiased, and similarly each bit of g(X,Y,Z) will be
independent and unbiased. The function h is the bit-wise "xor" or
"parity" function; it has properties similar to those of f and g.
Do the following:
For i = 0 to N/16-1 do: /* process each 16-word block */
For j = 0 to 15 do: /* copy block i into X */
Set X[j] to M[i*16+j].
end /* of loop on j */
Save A as AA, B as BB, C as CC, and D as DD.
[Round 1]
Let [A B C D i s] denote the operation
A = (A + f(B,C,D) + X[i]) <<< s .
Do the following 16 operations:
[A B C D 0 3]
[D A B C 1 7]
[C D A B 2 11]
[B C D A 3 19]
[A B C D 4 3]
[D A B C 5 7]
[C D A B 6 11]
[B C D A 7 19]
[A B C D 8 3]
[D A B C 9 7]
[C D A B 10 11]
[B C D A 11 19]
[A B C D 12 3]
[D A B C 13 7]
[C D A B 14 11]
[B C D A 15 19]
[Round 2]
Let [A B C D i s] denote the operation
A = (A + g(B,C,D) + X[i] + 5A827999) <<< s .
(The value 5A..99 is a hexadecimal 32-bit
constant, written with the high-order digit
first. This constant represents the square
root of 2. The octal value of this constant
is 013240474631. See Knuth, The Art of
Programming, Volume 2 (Seminumerical
Algorithms), Second Edition (1981),
Addison-Wesley. Table 2, page 660.)
Do the following 16 operations:
[A B C D 0 3]
[D A B C 4 5]
[C D A B 8 9]
[B C D A 12 13]
[A B C D 1 3]
[D A B C 5 5]
[C D A B 9 9]
[B C D A 13 13]
[A B C D 2 3]
[D A B C 6 5]
[C D A B 10 9]
[B C D A 14 13]
[A B C D 3 3]
[D A B C 7 5]
[C D A B 11 9]
[Round 3]
Let [A B C D i s] denote the operation
A = (A + h(B,C,D) + X[i] + 6ED9EBA1) <<< s .
(The value 6E..A1 is a hexadecimal 32-bit
constant, written with the high-order digit
first. This constant represents the square
root of 3. The octal value of this constant
is 015666365641. See Knuth, The Art of
Programming, Volume 2 (Seminumerical
Algorithms), Second Edition (1981),
Addison-Wesley. Table 2, page 660.)
Do the following 16 operations:
[A B C D 0 3]
[D A B C 8 9]
[C D A B 4 11]
[B C D A 12 15]
[A B C D 2 3]
[D A B C 10 9]
[C D A B 6 11]
[B C D A 14 15]
[A B C D 1 3]
[D A B C 9 9]
[C D A B 5 11]
[B C D A 13 15]
[A B C D 3 3]
[D A B C 11 9]
[C D A B 7 11]
[B C D A 15 15]
Then perform the following additions:
A = A + AA
B = B + BB
C = C + CC
D = D + DD
(That is, each of the four registers is
incremented by the value it had before
this block was started.)
end /* of loop on i */
3.5 Step 5. Output
The message digest produced as output is A,B,C,D. That is, we begin
with the low-order byte of A, and end with the high-order byte of D.
This completes the description of MD4. A reference implementation in
C is given in the Appendix.
4. Extensions
If more than 128 bits of output are required, then the following
procedure is recommended to obtain a 256-bit output. (There is no
provision made for obtaining more than 256 bits.)
Two copies of MD4 are run in parallel over the input. The first copy
is standard as described above. The second copy is modified as
follows.
The initial state of the second copy is:
word A: 00 11 22 33
word B: 44 55 66 77
word C: 88 99 aa bb
word D: cc dd ee ff
The magic constants in rounds 2 and 3 for the second copy of MD4 are
changed from sqrt(2) and sqrt(3) to cuberoot(2) and cuberoot(3):
Octal Hex
Round 2 constant 012050505746 50a28be6
Round 3 constant 013423350444 5c4dd124
Finally, after every 16-word block is processed (including the last
block), the values of the A registers in the two copies are
exchanged.
The final message digest is obtaining by appending the result of the
second copy of MD4 to the end of the result of the first copy of MD4.
5. Summary
The MD4 message digest algorithm is simple to implement, and provides
a "fingerprint" or message digest of a message of arbitrary length.
It is conjectured that the difficulty of coming up with two messages
having the same message digest is on the order of 2^64 operations,
and that the difficulty of coming up with any message having a given
message digest is on the order of 2^128 operations. The MD4
algorithm has been carefully scrutinized for weaknesses. It is,
however, a relatively new algorithm and further security analysis is
of course justified, as is the case with any new proposal of this
sort. The level of security provided by MD4 should be sufficient for
implementing very high security hybrid digital signature schemes
based on MD4 and the RSA public-key cryptosystem.
6. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Don Coppersmith, Burt Kaliski, Ralph Merkle,
and Noam Nisan for numerous helpful comments and suggestions.
Security Considerations
The level of security discussed in this memo by MD4 is considered to
be sufficient for implementing very high security hybrid digital
signature schemes based on MD4 and the RSA public-key cryptosystem.
Authors' Addresses
Ronald L. Rivest
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Laboratory for Computer Science
NE43-324
545 Technology Square
Cambridge, MA 02139-1986
Phone: (617) 253-5880
EMail: rivest@theory.lcs.mit.edu
Steve Dusse
RSA Data Security, Inc.
10 Twin Dolphin Dr.
Redwood City, CA 94065
Phone: (415) 595-8782
EMail: dusse@rsa.com
References
[1] Rivest, R.L. The MD4 message digest algorithm. Presented at
CRYPTO '90 (Santa Barbara, CA, August 11-15, 1990).
APPENDIX - Reference Implementation
This appendix contains the following files:
md4.h -- header file for using MD4 implementation
md4.c -- the source code for MD4 routines
md4driver.c -- a sample "user" routine
session -- sample results of running md4driver
The implementation of MD4 given in this appendix differs from the one
given in [1] and again in RFC 1186. The main difference is that this
version should compile and run correctly on more platforms than the
other ones. We have sacrificed performance for portability. MD4
speeds given in [1] and RFC 1186 are not necessarily the same as
those one might obtain with this reference implementation. However,
it is not difficult to improve this implementation on particular
platforms, an exercise left to the reader. Following are some
suggestions:
1. Change MD4Block so that the context is not used at all if
it is empty (mdi == 0) and 64 or more bytes remain (inLen
>= 64). In other words, call Transform with inBuf in this
case. (This requires that byte ordering is correct in
inBuf.)
2. Implement a procedure MD4BlockLong modeled after MD4Block
where inBuf is UINT4 * instead of unsigned char *.
MD4BlockLong would call Transform directly with 16 word
blocks from inBuf. Call this instead of MD4Block in
general. This works well if you have an I/O procedure that
can read long words from a file.
3. On "little-endian" platforms where the lowest-address byte
in a long word is the least significant (and there are no
alignment restrictions), change MD4Block to call Transform
directly with 64-byte blocks from inBuf (casted to a UINT4
*).
/*
**********************************************************************
** md4.h -- Header file for implementation of MD4 **
** RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message Digest Algorithm **
** Created: 2/17/90 RLR **
** Revised: 12/27/90 SRD,AJ,BSK,JT Reference C version **
**********************************************************************
*/
/*
**********************************************************************
** Copyright (C) 1990, RSA Data Security, Inc. All rights reserved. **
** **
** License to copy and use this software is granted provided that **
** it is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message **
** Digest Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this **
** software or this function. **
** **
** License is also granted to make and use derivative works **
** provided that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA **
** Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message Digest Algorithm" in all **
** material mentioning or referencing the derived work. **
** **
** RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning **
** either the merchantability of this software or the suitability **
** of this software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as **
** is" without express or implied warranty of any kind. **
** **
** These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this **
** documentation and/or software. **
**********************************************************************
*/
/* typedef a 32 bit type */
typedef unsigned long int UINT4;
/* Data structure for MD4 (Message Digest) computation */
typedef struct {
UINT4 i[2]; /* number of _bits_ handled mod 2^64 */
UINT4 buf[4]; /* scratch buffer */
unsigned char in[64]; /* input buffer */
unsigned char digest[16]; /* actual digest after MD4Final call */
} MD4_CTX;
void MD4Init ();
void MD4Update ();
void MD4Final ();
/*
**********************************************************************
** End of md4.h **
******************************* (cut) ********************************
*/
/*
**********************************************************************
** md4.c **
** RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message Digest Algorithm **
** Created: 2/17/90 RLR **
** Revised: 1/91 SRD,AJ,BSK,JT Reference C Version **
**********************************************************************
*/
/*
**********************************************************************
** Copyright (C) 1990, RSA Data Security, Inc. All rights reserved. **
** **
** License to copy and use this software is granted provided that **
** it is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message **
** Digest Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this **
** software or this function. **
** **
** License is also granted to make and use derivative works **
** provided that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA **
** Data Security, Inc. MD4 Message Digest Algorithm" in all **
** material mentioning or referencing the derived work. **
** **
** RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning **
** either the merchantability of this software or the suitability **
** of this software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as **
** is" without express or implied warranty of any kind. **
** **
** These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this **
** documentation and/or software. **
**********************************************************************
*/
#include "md4.h"
/* forward declaration */
static void Transform ();
static unsigned char PADDING[64] = {
0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
};
/* F, G and H are basic MD4 functions: selection, majority, parity */
#define F(x, y, z) (((x) & (y)) : ((~x) & (z)))
#define G(x, y, z) (((x) & (y)) : ((x) & (z)) : ((y) & (z)))
#define H(x, y, z) ((x) ^ (y) ^ (z))
/* ROTATE_LEFT rotates x left n bits */
#define ROTATE_LEFT(x, n) (((x) << (n)) : ((x) >> (32-(n))))
/* FF, GG and HH are MD4 transformations for rounds 1, 2 and 3 */
/* Rotation is separate from addition to prevent recomputation */
#define FF(a, b, c, d, x, s) \
{(a) += F ((b), (c), (d)) + (x); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s));}
#define GG(a, b, c, d, x, s) \
{(a) += G ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)013240474631; \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s));}
#define HH(a, b, c, d, x, s) \
{(a) += H ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)015666365641; \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s));}
void MD4Init (mdContext)
MD4_CTX *mdContext;
{
mdContext->i[0] = mdContext->i[1] = (UINT4)0;
/* Load magic initialization constants.
*/
mdContext->buf[0] = (UINT4)0x67452301;
mdContext->buf[1] = (UINT4)0xefcdab89;
mdContext->buf[2] = (UINT4)0x98badcfe;
mdContext->buf[3] = (UINT4)0x10325476;
}
void MD4Update (mdContext, inBuf, inLen)
MD4_CTX *mdContext;
unsigned char *inBuf;
unsigned int inLen;
{
UINT4 in[16];
int mdi;
unsigned int i, ii;
/* compute number of bytes mod 64 */
mdi = (int)((mdContext->i[0] >> 3) & 0x3F);
/* update number of bits */
if ((mdContext->i[0] + ((UINT4)inLen << 3)) < mdContext->i[0])
mdContext->i[1]++;
mdContext->i[0] += ((UINT4)inLen << 3);
mdContext->i[1] += ((UINT4)inLen >> 29);
while (inLen--) {
/* add new character to buffer, increment mdi */
mdContext->in[mdi++] = *inBuf++;
/* transform if necessary */
if (mdi == 0x40) {
for (i = 0, ii = 0; i < 16; i++, ii += 4)
in[i] = (((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii+3]) << 24) :
(((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii+2]) << 16) :
(((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii+1]) << 8) :
((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii]);
Transform (mdContext->buf, in);
mdi = 0;
}
}
}
void MD4Final (mdContext)
MD4_CTX *mdContext;
{
UINT4 in[16];
int mdi;
unsigned int i, ii;
unsigned int padLen;
/* save number of bits */
in[14] = mdContext->i[0];
in[15] = mdContext->i[1];
/* compute number of bytes mod 64 */
mdi = (int)((mdContext->i[0] >> 3) & 0x3F);
/* pad out to 56 mod 64 */
padLen = (mdi < 56) ? (56 - mdi) : (120 - mdi);
MD4Update (mdContext, PADDING, padLen);
/* append length in bits and transform */
for (i = 0, ii = 0; i < 14; i++, ii += 4)
in[i] = (((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii+3]) << 24) :
(((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii+2]) << 16) :
(((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii+1]) << 8) :
((UINT4)mdContext->in[ii]);
Transform (mdContext->buf, in);
/* store buffer in digest */
for (i = 0, ii = 0; i < 4; i++, ii += 4) {
mdContext->digest[ii] = (unsigned char)(mdContext->buf[i] & 0xFF);
mdContext->digest[ii+1] =
(unsigned char)((mdContext->buf[i] >> 8) & 0xFF);
mdContext->digest[ii+2] =
(unsigned char)((mdContext->buf[i] >> 16) & 0xFF);
mdContext->digest[ii+3] =
(unsigned char)((mdContext->buf[i] >> 24) & 0xFF);
}
}
/* Basic MD4 step. Transform buf based on in.
*/
static void Transform (buf, in)
UINT4 *buf;
UINT4 *in;
{
UINT4 a = buf[0], b = buf[1], c = buf[2], d = buf[3];
/* Round 1 */
FF (a, b, c, d, in[ 0], 3);
FF (d, a, b, c, in[ 1], 7);
FF (c, d, a, b, in[ 2], 11);
FF (b, c, d, a, in[ 3], 19);
FF (a, b, c, d, in[ 4], 3);
FF (d, a, b, c, in[ 5], 7);
FF (c, d, a, b, in[ 6], 11);
FF (b, c, d, a, in[ 7], 19);
FF (a, b, c, d, in[ 8], 3);
FF (d, a, b, c, in[ 9], 7);
FF (c, d, a, b, in[10], 11);
FF (b, c, d, a, in[11], 19);
FF (a, b, c, d, in[12], 3);
FF (d, a, b, c, in[13], 7);
FF (c, d, a, b, in[14], 11);
FF (b, c, d, a, in[15], 19);
/* Round 2 */
GG (a, b, c, d, in[ 0], 3);
GG (d, a, b, c, in[ 4], 5);
GG (c, d, a, b, in[ 8], 9);
GG (b, c, d, a, in[12], 13);
GG (a, b, c, d, in[ 1], 3);
GG (d, a, b, c, in[ 5], 5);
GG (c, d, a, b, in[ 9], 9);
GG (b, c, d, a, in[13], 13);
GG (a, b, c, d, in[ 2], 3);
GG (d, a, b, c, in[ 6], 5);
GG (c, d, a, b, in[10], 9);
GG (b, c, d, a, in[14], 13);
GG (a, b, c, d, in[ 3], 3);
GG (d, a, b, c, in[ 7], 5);
GG (c, d, a, b, in[11], 9);
GG (b, c, d, a, in[15], 13);
/* Round 3 */
HH (a, b, c, d, in[ 0], 3);
HH (d, a, b, c, in[ 8], 9);
HH (c, d, a, b, in[ 4], 11);
HH (b, c, d, a, in[12], 15);
HH (a, b, c, d, in[ 2], 3);
HH (d, a, b, c, in[10], 9);
HH (c, d, a, b, in[ 6], 11);
HH (b, c, d, a, in[14], 15);
HH (a, b, c, d, in[ 1], 3);
HH (d, a, b, c, in[ 9], 9);
HH (c, d, a, b, in[ 5], 11);
HH (b, c, d, a, in[13], 15);
HH (a, b, c, d, in[ 3], 3);
HH (d, a, b, c, in[11], 9);
HH (c, d, a, b, in[ 7], 11);
HH (b, c, d, a, in[15], 15);
buf[0] += a;
buf[1] += b;
buf[2] += c;
buf[3] += d;
}
/*
**********************************************************************
** End of md4.c **
******************************* (cut) ********************************
*/
/*
**********************************************************************
** md4driver.c -- sample routines to test **
** RSA Data Security, Inc. MD4 message digest algorithm. **
** Created: 2/16/90 RLR **
** Updated: 1/91 SRD **
**********************************************************************
*/
/*
**********************************************************************
** Copyright (C) 1990, RSA Data Security, Inc. All rights reserved. **
** **
** RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning **
** either the merchantability of this software or the suitability **
** of this software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as **
** is" without express or implied warranty of any kind. **
** **
** These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this **
** documentation and/or software. **
**********************************************************************
*/
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include "md4.h"
/* Prints message digest buffer in mdContext as 32 hexadecimal digits.
Order is from low-order byte to high-order byte of digest.
Each byte is printed with high-order hexadecimal digit first.
*/
static void MDPrint (mdContext)
MD4_CTX *mdContext;
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < 16; i++)
printf ("%02x", mdContext->digest[i]);
}
/* size of test block */
#define TEST_BLOCK_SIZE 1000
/* number of blocks to process */
#define TEST_BLOCKS 2000
/* number of test bytes = TEST_BLOCK_SIZE * TEST_BLOCKS */
static long TEST_BYTES = (long)TEST_BLOCK_SIZE * (long)TEST_BLOCKS;
/* A time trial routine, to measure the speed of MD4.
Measures wall time required to digest TEST_BLOCKS * TEST_BLOCK_SIZE
characters.
*/
static void MDTimeTrial ()
{
MD4_CTX mdContext;
time_t endTime, startTime;
unsigned char data[TEST_BLOCK_SIZE];
unsigned int i;
/* initialize test data */
for (i = 0; i < TEST_BLOCK_SIZE; i++)
data[i] = (unsigned char)(i & 0xFF);
/* start timer */
printf ("MD4 time trial. Processing %ld characters...\n", TEST_BYTES);
time (&startTime);
/* digest data in TEST_BLOCK_SIZE byte blocks */
MD4Init (&mdContext);
for (i = TEST_BLOCKS; i > 0; i--)
MD4Update (&mdContext, data, TEST_BLOCK_SIZE);
MD4Final (&mdContext);
/* stop timer, get time difference */
time (&endTime);
MDPrint (&mdContext);
printf (" is digest of test input.\n");
printf
("Seconds to process test input: %ld\n", (long)(endTime-startTime));
printf
("Characters processed per second: %ld\n",
TEST_BYTES/(endTime-startTime));
}
/* Computes the message digest for string inString.
Prints out message digest, a space, the string (in quotes) and a
carriage return.
*/
static void MDString (inString)
char *inString;
{
MD4_CTX mdContext;
unsigned int len = strlen (inString);
MD4Init (&mdContext);
MD4Update (&mdContext, inString, len);
MD4Final (&mdContext);
MDPrint (&mdContext);
printf (" \"%s\"\n\n", inString);
}
/* Computes the message digest for a specified file.
Prints out message digest, a space, the file name, and a carriage
return.
*/
static void MDFile (filename)
char *filename;
{
FILE *inFile = fopen (filename, "rb");
MD4_CTX mdContext;
int bytes;
unsigned char data[1024];
if (inFile == NULL) {
printf ("%s can't be opened.\n", filename);
return;
}
MD4Init (&mdContext);
while ((bytes = fread (data, 1, 1024, inFile)) != 0)
MD4Update (&mdContext, data, bytes);
MD4Final (&mdContext);
MDPrint (&mdContext);
printf (" %s\n", filename);
fclose (inFile);
}
/* Writes the message digest of the data from stdin onto stdout,
followed by a carriage return.
*/
static void MDFilter ()
{
MD4_CTX mdContext;
int bytes;
unsigned char data[16];
MD4Init (&mdContext);
while ((bytes = fread (data, 1, 16, stdin)) != 0)
MD4Update (&mdContext, data, bytes);
MD4Final (&mdContext);
MDPrint (&mdContext);
printf ("\n");
}
/* Runs a standard suite of test data.
*/
static void MDTestSuite ()
{
printf ("MD4 test suite results:\n\n");
MDString ("");
MDString ("a");
MDString ("abc");
MDString ("message digest");
MDString ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
MDString
("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789");
MDString
("1234567890123456789012345678901234567890\
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890");
/* Contents of file foo are "abc" */
MDFile ("foo");
}
void main (argc, argv)
int argc;
char *argv[];
{
int i;
/* For each command line argument in turn:
** filename -- prints message digest and name of file
** -sstring -- prints message digest and contents of string
** -t -- prints time trial statistics for 1M characters
** -x -- execute a standard suite of test data
** (no args) -- writes messages digest of stdin onto stdout
*/
if (argc == 1)
MDFilter ();
else
for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
if (argv[i][0] == '-' && argv[i][1] == 's')
MDString (argv[i] + 2);
else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-t") == 0)
MDTimeTrial ();
else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-x") == 0)
MDTestSuite ();
else MDFile (argv[i]);
}
/*
**********************************************************************
** End of md4driver.c **
******************************* (cut) ********************************
*/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Sample session output obtained by running md4driver test suite --
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
MD4 test suite results:
31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0 ""
bde52cb31de33e46245e05fbdbd6fb24 "a"
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d "abc"
d9130a8164549fe818874806e1c7014b "message digest"
d79e1c308aa5bbcdeea8ed63df412da9 "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
043f8582f241db351ce627e153e7f0e4 "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghij
klmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789"
e33b4ddc9c38f2199c3e7b164fcc0536 "123456789012345678901234567890123456
78901234567890123456789012345678901234567890"
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d foo
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- End of sample session --
-------------------------------- (cut) --------------------------------
Note: A version of this document including the C source code is
available for FTP from RSA.COM in the file "md4.doc".