Tiny13 CES Design
The theory underlying Cranial Electro Therapy is well explained here...
The Science Behind Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) by Daniel L. Kirsch, Ph.D.
To save you the cost and hassle of ordering the book, Iíve distilled the wisdom contained therein into the following brief observations.
- The most common frequencies used are as follows; 0.5 Hz, 1.5 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz.
- The waveform can be either a Biphasic Rectangular or a Sawtooth wave.
- The Current should lie between 10 and 1000 Micro Amps.
As an introduction to this technology, consider the Tiny13 CES Machine diagram below. It uses our old friend, the Tiny13, once again, configured as a programmable biphasic rectangle waveform generator. The above mentioned frequencies are randomly selected by a 23-Bit Random Number Generator and applied to the Earclips via 2 Current limiting resistors. See Biphasic Waveforms diagram below.
The session time is limited to 30 +/- 1% minutes to avoid habituation and on power down the contents of the Working State Registers are stored in EEProm. Likewise, on power on the Working State Registers are uploaded once again from the EEProm. This procedure ensures that the machine on boot up carries on uninterrupted, as it were, from the state it had on power down.
The attached "tiny13_FourFlowcharts.pdf" may be of help in following the logical structure of the program.
To save power, since no On/Off switch is included, extensive use is made of the Sleep instruction, both in Idle and Power Down mode. Using the latter mode the current consumption @ 5v is in the order of 500 Nano amps and that corresponds to the self discharge of a typical AA battery... Real micro power here!
The 56K resistor on Pb3 limits the maximum current to around 100 Micro amps as this is the most used therapeutic current. Other resistors, of course, can be used here to allow different current intensities to flow. In keeping with the therapeutic aims of the research, we strongly recommend that the MINIMUM resistance should be not less than 6K8 Ohms!!!
The frequencies have been statistically weighted to deliver the weight adjusted frequencies as follows: 0.5 Hz has been given a weight of 50%. 1.5 Hz a weight of 25%. Both the frequencies 10 Hz and 100 Hz have been weighted at 12.5% each.
A cheap 80 Ohm headphone speaker connected in series with a lo power Ultra Bright Led is PWM on for 10 Milliseconds every 3.5 Seconds, giving us a duty cycle of 1 to 3500, so helping to further extend the life of the batteries.
Earclips can be built with little plastic clips and cementing the end of the wire in a position suited to make good contact with earlobes.
Ultra-simple earclips can be made using a thin copper foil with rounded corners 4 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide, soldering the wire end in the center, and then folding the foil in two parts holding the earlobes.
To ensure a better current transfer, this kind of device usually has felt pads moistened with a conducting solution interposed between clips and skin.
The author is involved with further research in the field of CES and other alternative and complimentary technologies and would appreciate any feedback, information, and suggestions having to do with same.
Have a stimulating time.
WARNING: This device is intended as a recreational tool only and no claims are
made as to its efficacy, medical or otherwise. This device must be powered from batteries only and must not, under any circumstances, be connected via a transformer to the mains utility supply!
Tiny13 CES Machine Circuit Diagram: